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N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone
CasNo: 2687-91-4
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N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone

MolecularFormula: C6H11NO
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CAS NO. 2687-91-4
EINECS NO.220-250-6
FORMULA:C6H11NO
MOL WT: 113.16
H.S. CODE:2933.79.8500
TOXICITY:Oral Rat LD50: 1350mg/kg
SYNONYMS:1-Ethyl-2-pyrrolidinone; NEP; 1-éthylpyrrolidine-2-one; 1-Ethylpyrrolidin-2-one;
1-Ethylpyrrolidin-2-on; 1-Etilpirrolidin-2-ona; N-Ethylpyrrolidone; N-Ethyl-2-pyrrolidinon; N-Ethylpyrrolidinone;
SMILES:N1(C(CCC1)=O)CC
CLASSIFICATION:Lactam, Solvent, Pyrrolidine, Intermediate
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
PHYSICAL STATE Clear, colorless liquid
MELTING POINT:< -75 C
BOILING POINT:97 at 20 mm Hg
SPECIFIC GRAVITY:0.992
SOLUBILITY IN WATER:Miscible (and soluble in other organic solvents.)
VAPOR DENSITY:3.90
NFPA RATINGS:Health: 2 Flammability: 2 Instability: 0;
log Pow:-0.04 (Octanol-water)
VAPOR PRESSURE:0.103 (mmHg)
HENRY'S LAW:4.19E-08 (atm-m3/mole at 25 C)
OH RATE:2.54E-11 (cm3/molecule-sec at 25 C Atmospheric)
REFRACTIVE INDEX :1.465 - 1.467
FLASH POINT:76 C
STABILITY:Stable under ordinary conditions.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION & EXTERNAL LINKS
Pyrrolidone is a keto-pyrrole, that is a 5-membered lactam structure compound (gamma-butyrolactam). Lactam structure compound including pyrrolidone has good solvency property, therefore useful in industrial application. It is an important part of antibiotics, such as penicillin. These structures, cyclic esters and analogues, are active nucleuses in pharmacological activity and flavorings. Lactams have big demand in artificial fibre industry. They are polymerizable and used as nylon precursors. 2-Pyrrolidone is used as a solvent for surface treatment for textiles, metal coated plastics, polymers, and paint removing. Pyrrolidone and its derivatives are used as Intermediates for the synthesis of agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, textile auxiliaries, plasticizers, polymer solvent, stabilizers, specialty inks and as a nylon precursor. NMP is used as a solvent for paint stripping and resins; cleaner for polymeric residues; metal finishing; printed circuit board manufacturing; SBR latex production; pigment dispersant; extraction of acetylene and butadiene; dehydration of natural gas; lube oil processing;
SALES SPECIFICATION
APPEARANCE clear to slightly yellow liquid
ASSAY:99.0% min
WATER:0.5% max
COLOR (APHA):50 max
HAZARD OVERVIEW:GHS (Globally Harmonised System) Classification: Flammable liquids. Acute toxicity (Oral). Eye irritation. Hazard statements: Combustible liquid. Harmful if swallowed. Causes serious eye irritation.
AZARD STATEMENTS:H302-H319
P STATEMENTS:P305 + P351 + P338
In accordance with Article 37 (4) of the Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 (CLP Regulation),the Committee for Risk Assessment (RAC) has adopted an opinion on the proposal for
harmonised classification and labelling of Substance Name: N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (NEP)
SCIENTIFIC GROUNDS FOR THE OPINION
The opinion relates only to those hazard classes that have been reviewed in the proposal for harmonised classification and labelling, as submitted by France.
N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone is an industrial solvent, catalyst and surfactant. A classification proposal relating to the reproductive toxicity has been submitted by France as follows.
No other endpoint will be addressed.Proposal of the dossier submitter Reproductive Toxicity
A significant data base of experimental animal studies were submitted by the notifier and evaluated by the dossier submitter (DS). These include both dermal (BASF 2010) and oral
gavage ( BASF 2007a/BASF 2007b) studies in the rabbit and oral gavage (Saillenfait 2007) and dermal (BASF 2005) studies carried out in the rat. All data were either compliant or
consistent with current OECD guidelines. In addition, the developmental profile of a closely related substance N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) currently classified as Cat 1B H360 (1st ATP CLP) and Repr. Cat.2; R61 (31st ATP Directive 67/548/EEC and) was included for comparative purposes. Based on the animal studies carried out, it was clearly demonstrated
that N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone(NEP) induces:
?- adverse effects on foetal body weights in rabbits by oral route, in rats by dermal route and in rats by oral route
- effects on post-implantation loss and in particular late resorptions in rats by oral route.
- malformations in rabbits by dermal and oral route and in rats by oral route.There was a significant increase in skeletal malformations by oral route in both rats and rabbits. Besides, rare cardiovascular malformations were observed above historical controls in rabbit by dermal and oral routes and in rats by oral route. On this basis, it is concluded that there is clear evidence of teratogenic and foeto-toxic effects of N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone(NEP).
Developmental effects of N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone(NEP) and in particular the profile of malformations observed in the rat by oral route, are similar to the developmental effects observed with NMP, which
strengthen the weight of evidence that the effects observed in the N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone(NEP) studies are related to administration of the test substance.
It is noted that the decrease in foetal weight in the rat and in the rabbit by oral route, the induction of late resorptions in the rat by oral route and of malformations in rabbit by dermal and oral route and in rat by oral route cannot be correlated to a limited maternal toxicity.
While maternal toxicity was clearly demonstrated, the possibility that the serious specific  malformations and developmental toxicity may be treatment-related cannot the discounted.
Such an effect must be critically assessed irrespective of maternal toxicity. Such malformations and other adverse developmental effects observed cannot be considered as consequential on maternal toxicity. The similarity of effects between N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone(NEP) and NMP also support that these effects are an intrinsic property of these compounds.
A classification Repr. 1B –H360D is warranted (Repr. Cat. 2; R61 according to Directive 67/548/EEC). As no developmental study is available by inhalation, it is proposed not to
specify route of exposure in the hazard statement.
Guidelines to set specific concentration limits (SCL) for reproductive toxicity are currently under discussion. In absence of adopted guidelines at this point in time, no SCL are proposed.
Comments submitted during the public consultation
The comments received from a number of Member States were in support of the dossier submitter’s classification proposal. A number of Member State Competent Authorities
(MSCAs) pointed out that the designation of H360D instead of the general statement H360 was incorrect. According to the CLP Guidance Document (Section 3.7.4.1) only the general
statement can be applied in the absence of specific reliable and adequate data on fertility which excludes this effect. This point was agreed by the DS and the draft of CLH report was amended accordingly.
The industry comment was in general support of the classification proposal. A reference was made by the industry federation CEFIC to new data (28 day inhalation study OECD 412)
which they considered relevant to fertility (CEFIC 6/5/2011 Annex 2 Draft RCOM).
Reference was also made to a 2 generation study protocol. Industry suggested that the current consultation should await the results of these studies when completed. In addition, it was proposed that due to similarity (structural and toxicity profile) to NMP which is classified as GHS Repro. Cat 1B H360D with a specific concentration limit of >5%, the same concentration limit should be applied to N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone(NEP).
Outcome of RAC consultation
RAC supports the classification proposal of the dossier submitter.The original labelling proposal of the dossier submitter was allocation of H360D, which was amended to H360 in the revised CLH Report following comments made during the public consultation. There were different opinions on this issue raised at RAC 17 and during the written follow up (ORCOM). RAC agreed upon the allocation of ‘D’ to specify the development endpoint, i.e., H360D. This is in line with a number of previous RAC recommendations where only one of the two reproductive endpoints has been addressed. The rationale is that the relevant positive adverse effect should be identified in the labelling phrase to offer greater protection to the user, even though it is acknowledged that this procedure is not strictly in line with the guidelines.
The Background Document, attached as Annex 1, gives the detailed scientific grounds for the Opinion.

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