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CasNo: 2687-91-4


MolecularFormula: C6H11NO


CAS NO. 2687-91-4
EINECS NO.220-250-6
MOL WT: 113.16
H.S. CODE:2933.79.8500
TOXICITY:Oral Rat LD50: 1350mg/kg
SYNONYMS:1-Ethyl-2-pyrrolidinone; NEP; 1-éthylpyrrolidine-2-one; 1-Ethylpyrrolidin-2-one;
1-Ethylpyrrolidin-2-on; 1-Etilpirrolidin-2-ona; N-Ethylpyrrolidone; N-Ethyl-2-pyrrolidinon; N-Ethylpyrrolidinone;
CLASSIFICATION:Lactam, Solvent, Pyrrolidine, Intermediate
PHYSICAL STATE Clear, colorless liquid
BOILING POINT:97 at 20 mm Hg
SOLUBILITY IN WATER:Miscible (and soluble in other organic solvents.)
NFPA RATINGS:Health: 2 Flammability: 2 Instability: 0;
log Pow:-0.04 (Octanol-water)
HENRY'S LAW:4.19E-08 (atm-m3/mole at 25 C)
OH RATE:2.54E-11 (cm3/molecule-sec at 25 C Atmospheric)
REFRACTIVE INDEX :1.465 - 1.467
STABILITY:Stable under ordinary conditions.
Pyrrolidone is a keto-pyrrole, that is a 5-membered lactam structure compound (gamma-butyrolactam). Lactam structure compound including pyrrolidone has good solvency property, therefore useful in industrial application. It is an important part of antibiotics, such as penicillin. These structures, cyclic esters and analogues, are active nucleuses in pharmacological activity and flavorings. Lactams have big demand in artificial fibre industry. They are polymerizable and used as nylon precursors. 2-Pyrrolidone is used as a solvent for surface treatment for textiles, metal coated plastics, polymers, and paint removing. Pyrrolidone and its derivatives are used as Intermediates for the synthesis of agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, textile auxiliaries, plasticizers, polymer solvent, stabilizers, specialty inks and as a nylon precursor. NMP is used as a solvent for paint stripping and resins; cleaner for polymeric residues; metal finishing; printed circuit board manufacturing; SBR latex production; pigment dispersant; extraction of acetylene and butadiene; dehydration of natural gas; lube oil processing;
APPEARANCE clear to slightly yellow liquid
ASSAY:99.0% min
WATER:0.5% max
COLOR (APHA):50 max
HAZARD OVERVIEW:GHS (Globally Harmonised System) Classification: Flammable liquids. Acute toxicity (Oral). Eye irritation. Hazard statements: Combustible liquid. Harmful if swallowed. Causes serious eye irritation.
P STATEMENTS:P305 + P351 + P338
In accordance with Article 37 (4) of the Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 (CLP Regulation),the Committee for Risk Assessment (RAC) has adopted an opinion on the proposal for
harmonised classification and labelling of Substance Name: N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (NEP)
The opinion relates only to those hazard classes that have been reviewed in the proposal for harmonised classification and labelling, as submitted by France.
N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone is an industrial solvent, catalyst and surfactant. A classification proposal relating to the reproductive toxicity has been submitted by France as follows.
No other endpoint will be addressed.Proposal of the dossier submitter Reproductive Toxicity
A significant data base of experimental animal studies were submitted by the notifier and evaluated by the dossier submitter (DS). These include both dermal (BASF 2010) and oral
gavage ( BASF 2007a/BASF 2007b) studies in the rabbit and oral gavage (Saillenfait 2007) and dermal (BASF 2005) studies carried out in the rat. All data were either compliant or
consistent with current OECD guidelines. In addition, the developmental profile of a closely related substance N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) currently classified as Cat 1B H360 (1st ATP CLP) and Repr. Cat.2; R61 (31st ATP Directive 67/548/EEC and) was included for comparative purposes. Based on the animal studies carried out, it was clearly demonstrated
that N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone(NEP) induces:
?- adverse effects on foetal body weights in rabbits by oral route, in rats by dermal route and in rats by oral route
- effects on post-implantation loss and in particular late resorptions in rats by oral route.
- malformations in rabbits by dermal and oral route and in rats by oral route.There was a significant increase in skeletal malformations by oral route in both rats and rabbits. Besides, rare cardiovascular malformations were observed above historical controls in rabbit by dermal and oral routes and in rats by oral route. On this basis, it is concluded that there is clear evidence of teratogenic and foeto-toxic effects of N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone(NEP).
Developmental effects of N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone(NEP) and in particular the profile of malformations observed in the rat by oral route, are similar to the developmental effects observed with NMP, which
strengthen the weight of evidence that the effects observed in the N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone(NEP) studies are related to administration of the test substance.
It is noted that the decrease in foetal weight in the rat and in the rabbit by oral route, the induction of late resorptions in the rat by oral route and of malformations in rabbit by dermal and oral route and in rat by oral route cannot be correlated to a limited maternal toxicity.
While maternal toxicity was clearly demonstrated, the possibility that the serious specific  malformations and developmental toxicity may be treatment-related cannot the discounted.
Such an effect must be critically assessed irrespective of maternal toxicity. Such malformations and other adverse developmental effects observed cannot be considered as consequential on maternal toxicity. The similarity of effects between N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone(NEP) and NMP also support that these effects are an intrinsic property of these compounds.
A classification Repr. 1B –H360D is warranted (Repr. Cat. 2; R61 according to Directive 67/548/EEC). As no developmental study is available by inhalation, it is proposed not to
specify route of exposure in the hazard statement.
Guidelines to set specific concentration limits (SCL) for reproductive toxicity are currently under discussion. In absence of adopted guidelines at this point in time, no SCL are proposed.
Comments submitted during the public consultation
The comments received from a number of Member States were in support of the dossier submitter’s classification proposal. A number of Member State Competent Authorities
(MSCAs) pointed out that the designation of H360D instead of the general statement H360 was incorrect. According to the CLP Guidance Document (Section only the general
statement can be applied in the absence of specific reliable and adequate data on fertility which excludes this effect. This point was agreed by the DS and the draft of CLH report was amended accordingly.
The industry comment was in general support of the classification proposal. A reference was made by the industry federation CEFIC to new data (28 day inhalation study OECD 412)
which they considered relevant to fertility (CEFIC 6/5/2011 Annex 2 Draft RCOM).
Reference was also made to a 2 generation study protocol. Industry suggested that the current consultation should await the results of these studies when completed. In addition, it was proposed that due to similarity (structural and toxicity profile) to NMP which is classified as GHS Repro. Cat 1B H360D with a specific concentration limit of >5%, the same concentration limit should be applied to N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone(NEP).
Outcome of RAC consultation
RAC supports the classification proposal of the dossier submitter.The original labelling proposal of the dossier submitter was allocation of H360D, which was amended to H360 in the revised CLH Report following comments made during the public consultation. There were different opinions on this issue raised at RAC 17 and during the written follow up (ORCOM). RAC agreed upon the allocation of ‘D’ to specify the development endpoint, i.e., H360D. This is in line with a number of previous RAC recommendations where only one of the two reproductive endpoints has been addressed. The rationale is that the relevant positive adverse effect should be identified in the labelling phrase to offer greater protection to the user, even though it is acknowledged that this procedure is not strictly in line with the guidelines.

The Background Document, attached as Annex 1, gives the detailed scientific grounds for the Opinion.

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N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone Market Poised to Account for US$ 985 Million by 2020
 The global N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone (NMP) market is expected to observe modest growth over a five-year forecast period, 2015-2020. Expanding at a 5.4% of CAGR during the assessed period, the global NMP market will possibly attain the revenues of US$ 985.3 Mn by 2020 end.
The market for NMP in developing Asian countries will be primarily driven by increasing urbanization and industrialization, coupled with rampantly evolving infrastructure development realm. Attributed to its chemical properties, such as higher flame point and lower volatility, N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone finds various applications several end-use industries. This will remain a key factor driving the demand on a global level. Industrial applications in a sweeping range of verticals, including electronics, pharmaceuticals, petrochemical, agrochemical, paints and coatings, and industrial cleaning will also continue to drive the market for N-Methylpyrrolidone over the next few years.
The flourishing consumer electronics sector is likely to generate substantial demand for NMP. With soaring demand for electronics production, the consumption of N-Methylpyrrolidone will also witness a significant hike. Moreover, increasing demand for agrochemicals is expected to elevate the revenue sales in the next few years. Another industrial sector estimated to support the growth of the global N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone market is pharmaceuticals. Growing market in Asia Pacific are expected to play a vital role in boosting the demand throughout the forecast period, eventually fostering the market for NMP globally.
Strngent regulations regarding usage of N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone may remain a long-term restraint to market growth. Moreover, the market has been experiencing a rapid setback in certain verticals, such as paints and coatings, and industrial cleaning. This can also be a major limiting factor impacting the market growth by 2020 end.
By application, the electronics application segment is expected to remain dominant over other segments, including agrochemicals, petrochemical processing, industrial cleaners, pharmaceuticals, paints and coatings, and others. Electronics application segment will possibly capture around 23% share of the entire market revenues in 2020, witnessing an optimistic CAGR of 6.7% during 2015-2020. Pharmaceuticals will continue to be the second largest application segment that was evaluated at US$ 122.7 Mn in 2015. This segment is anticipated to demonstrate a moderate CAGR of 6.3% by 2020 end, accounting for nearly 15% market value share.
According to Persistence Market Research’s regional analysis, Asia Pacific is foreseen to remain the global leader with over 36% share of the market revenues in 2016. This growth is predominantly attributed to lower production costs in Asian countries. The second largest regional market, North America, will contribute around 30% share to the market in 2016.
A few key market players include LyondellBasell Industries N.V., BASF SE, Ashland Inc., Abtonsmart Chemical (Group) Co. Ltd., and Shandong Qingyun Changxin Chemical Science-Tech Co., Ltd. A few other notable companies competing in the N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone marketplace are Zhejiang Realsun Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., Hefei TNJ Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., Puyang Guangming Chemicals Co., Ltd., and Balaji Amines Limited.
Long-term Outlook: The global N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone market is likely to reach a value of US$ 985.3 Mn by the end of the forecast period, 2015-2020.


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